The Top 5 Leading Causes of Disease for Males of All Ages
Cause of Disease
Lower Respiratory Infections
Ischaemic Heart Disease
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Pneumonia kills more people than any other condition affecting the lungs and it is a prime cause of death in young children. 28% of all deaths are attributable to acute respiratory infections. Most LRI's are curable with cheap, effective antibiotics at the onset of symptoms.
Eastern Europe and central Asia have nearly half a million HIV-infected youth, mostly as a result of injection drug use. Rates are rising rapidly in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Latvia, and Russia, as well as in the Ukraine, where two percent of young men are now HIV-infected. HIV infection remains more common among young men than young women in industrialized nations, Latin America, Eastern Europe and central Asia, and the Middle East and North Africa. In industrialized nations and in parts of Latin America and Asia, cases occur mostly among young men who have sex with men; in the other regions, cases occur mostly among young men who use injection drugs.
Diarrhoea is caused by a variety of micro-organisms including viruses, bacteria and protozoans. Diarrhoea causes a person to lose both water and electrolytes,, which leads to dehydration and, in some cases, to death. 1.8 million people die every year from diarrhoeal diseases (including cholera); 90% are children under 5, mostly in developing countries. 88% of diarrhoeal disease is attributed to unsafe water supply, inadequate sanitation and hygiene. Hygiene interventions including hygiene education and promotion of hand washing can lead to a reduction of diarrhoeal cases by up to 45%. Targeted environmental interventions could reduce the number of deaths from diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections by over 3 million people each year.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the meninges that can be caused by bacteria or viruses.
Transmission of meningitis is through direct contact with respiratory droplets. Displaced populations and displaced persons are at increased risk of meningitis because of overcrowding, poor hygiene and poor access to health care. Without appropriate treatment, the case-fatality rate in meningococcal meningitis can be as high as 50%; This can be reduced to Ã¢â‚¬â€œ5Ã¢â‚¬â€œ15% by correct treatment.
Major risk factors for heart disease include high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, tobacco use, diabetes, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition. The link between smoking and heart disease has been well described in populations all over the world. A 25 year follow up of a Seven Country Study, reported a dose-dependent increase in risk of death from smoking. After 25 years, 57.7% of persons smoking 30 cigarettes per day had died, compared to only 36.3% of non-smokers. Additional long-term data from a 40 year follow up of British physicians noted that excess mortality from cardiovascular disease was two times higher among smokers compared to non-smokers and that this ratio was even more extreme during middle age. The average age of a first heart attack for men is 66 years old and almost half of men who have a heart attack under age 65 die within 8 years.
Sources: WHO report: Injury, a leading cause of the global burden of disease 2000.
List Notes: All Statistics are reported deaths for the year 2000. This WHO study combines mortality data from national vital registration systems with information obtained from surveys, censuses,epidemiological studies and health service data.